Thursday, August 27, 2020
Question: Talk about theEconomics for Accountants. Answer: Air pocket in Housing Market Air pocket in lodging market for the most part alluded to the climb in lodging cost. During recent years, lodging costs in Australia has been ascending by 7.25% per annum all things considered. As expressed by David (2015), property bubble is a sort of financial air pocket that demonstrates consistent ascent in showcase cost of property. Lodging costs increment keeping equality with increment in salary of family unit and lease. Pay raises total interest for lodging in local economy and pulls in speculation from universal market. As gracefully of lodging is less flexible contrasted with request, lodging costs increment quickly in the economy. Among different urban areas, lodging costs has grown quickly in Sydney. Low loan cost, high populace development, positive duty framework for the financial specialists is critical traits for ascend in lodging cost in Australia. Figure 1: Australian Housing bubble stage (Source: australianpropertyforum.com, 2015) Ponzi Scheme As talked about by Worthington (2012), ponzi conspire is a sort of misrepresentation in speculation, when the installment of the primary speculator is finished utilizing the cash got from another financial specialists. No genuine return is produced from this venture. A misrepresentation individual or operator may put an ad for a lodging speculation, which doesn't exist and may procure exceptional return inside an extremely brief period. The fraudster evaporates with all the cash leaving the financial specialist with no arrival including the rule sum. The unnecessary increment sought after develops a mutilated resource advertise with rising home loan in Australian banks. This lodging business sector may crumple if the development model of lodging value breaks. Figure 2: Demand and gracefully of lodging (Source: made by creator) As endorsement for new structure is developing, the gracefully increments in the market of lodging, keeping request unaltered. In this manner, flexibly bend shifts towards right making sure about new balance at point E2. As flexibly of lodging has expanded in the market, amount of lodging increments and cost of lodging property begins to fall in the market along the interest bend. New balance is reached, where the new gracefully bend the interest bend. Market balance is accomplished at a lower cost and a more noteworthy amount. At the point when money related markets are deregulated, new loaning foundations will in general rise and thus, rivalry increments in the market. So as to draw in more clients, loan specialists attempt to loan at a lower intrigue. Borrowers search the moneylender with least expense of capital in both outside and residential budgetary market (Irvine, 2015). It very well may be expressed from the perspective of the moneylenders that they attempt more serious danger of composing credits so as to expand income. Be that as it may, banks and other monetary establishments face credit chance while loaning cash. Interest in land market, for example, Australia is progressively dangerous. In this manner, despite the fact that borrowers are in an ideal situation by expanding government assistance, financial government assistance are not expanded through this strategy, as banks may confront indebtedness and credit hazard if advances stay unpaid (Worthington, 2012). This procedure may bring about misfortune as contributors won't get their installments and bank will be troubled with expanding nonperforming resources. Oligopoly is, where just barely any organizations work. Comfortable oligopoly alludes joint endeavor of various firms. Those organizations may contend with one another or may frame cartel to keep advertise force and authority over cost. Items in this market are separated. Firms regularly take part in value war. As expressed by Eyers (2016), obtaining in the financial area of Australia lessens the opposition in the budgetary market. As rivalry diminishes, number of accessible alternatives to the clients additionally diminishes. The parent bank picks up the intensity of keeping cost at elevated level. Significant Australian banks that holds over 85% piece of the pie throughout the years are National Australian bank, Commonwealth Bank, Westpac and Australia New Zealand Banking gathering. Grouping of market power expands the business benefits. References australianpropertyforum.com (2015). Australian property gathering. Recovered 26 January 2017, from https://australianpropertyforum.com/point/10305033/1/ David, L. (2015) Banks have rewarded our lodging market like a Ponzi plan, and it's going to bust. Recovered 26 January 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/aug/20/banks-have-rewarded our-lodging market-like-a-ponzi-plan and-its-going to-bustid Eyers, J., (2016). ACCC cautions 'comfortable' banks it is worried about rivalry. Recovered 26 January 2017, from https://www.smh.com.au/business/banking-and-money/accc-cautions comfortable banks-it-is-worried about rivalry 20160322-gnojod.html Irvine, J., (2015). Basic gracefully and request will choose what occurs close to Sydney house costs. Recovered 26 January 2017, from https://www.smh.com.au/nsw/basic flexibly and-request will-choose what-happens-close to-sydney-house-costs 20151126-gl8z7o.html Worthington, A. C. (2012). The 25 year record on lodging moderateness, reasonableness drivers, and government strategy reactions in Australia.International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis,5(3), 235-252. [Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Andrew_Worthington4/distribution/254417876_The_quarter_century_record_on_housing_affordability_affordability_drivers_and_government_policy_responses_in_Australia/joins/5462acee0cf2cb7e9da653b8/The-25 years record-on-lodging moderateness reasonableness drivers-and-government-strategy reactions in-Australia.pdf]
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Social Responsibility Essay A people group comprises of associations and residents that are generally attached to one certain zone. What makes a network fruitful and viable is when both the organizations and residents cooperate with similar qualities and interests. At the point when the two associations inside a network and its residents cooperate, it is a success win circumstance. It makes for a superior spot to run an association and a superior spot for its residents to live in. Effective organizations and associations are presently concentrating on things other than making a benefit. These organizations are investigating how to make the network they serve a superior spot and to assemble a superior relationship with its locale which thusly, will assist them with working all the more successfully (Investopedia, n.d.). Organization Q is experiencing a little difficulty with containing a positive social duty with the network it serves in. Bing in a significant metropolitan zone, Company Q has needed to close two since they were continually revealing a misfortune. These two stores were sadly, situated in zones where the crime-percentages were higher. Organization Q doesn't have an inspirational attitude toward the social obligation to its locale on account of the absence of trust that the administration in Company Q has with their representatives. Nearby food banks have asked Company Q to give day-old food yet Company Q has declined feeling that the organization will lose cash since the board imagines that its representatives will take the food guaranteeing that they are giving. The organization feels that if its workers do any of this misrepresentation or taking, the organization will lose cash. One activity that Company Q can take to improve its social obligation is to build security levels. Organization Q doesn't have any trust in their workers so they can begin by adding video observation to ensure that their representatives are not taking or doing any sort of extortion with the food they could be giving to the nearby food bank. Another kind of securityÃ¢ measure can be to recruit a type of security or misfortune avoidance to the stores. This sort of measure can help with keeping any taking from both their representatives and clients. Expanding the kind of security can even assistance with keeping those stores that they had shut down in the horror rate regions. On the off chance that crooks realize that there are a type of safety efforts inside the stores, it diminishes the odds of taking which thusly, will ideally keep Company Q from losing cash. Another activity that Company Q can do is to attempt to discover less expensive methods of discovering wellbeing still, small voice and natural items. This will help with diminishing the measure of items that are left unsold. They can attempt to locate any neighborhood makers and possibly think of an arrangement to purchase items in mass at a lesser cost. This will help with diminishing the business cost on the things so ideally more clients will need to buy a greater amount of these things. Being in a metropolitan zone, the residents in the network are exceptionally constrained to the stores they can shop at since space is extremely restricted in downtown regions. Organization Q could profit with bringing down their costs on excellent, wellbeing still, small voice and natural items since it would bring more clients into their stores on the off chance that they were progressively reasonable. A last activity that Company Q can do is to give some preparation to their administration and workers. One sort of preparing can be about morals and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s implicit rules. Morals and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s implicit rules preparing can enable the workers to know from good and bad. It will enable the workers to comprehend what is anticipated from them as a representative. Another sort of preparing can be worker preparing and exercises that will help with the assurance inside the organization. They can do exercises that will help manufacture cooperation and bliss with working in the organization. These sort of exercises can help advance occupation fulfillment. The sort of resolve that would work from these exercises can cause the representatives to appreciate where they work and who they work with. Occupation fulfillment will make a representative need to make the best decision since they appreciate where they work. References Social Responsibility Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2014. .
Friday, August 21, 2020
Sweeney Tod Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Sweeney Todd depends on the nineteenth century drama about a London criminal. Todd is kind of depicted as a respectable figure headed to wrongdoing when Judge Turpin takes his significant other and youngster from him. He is unfairly detained and pledges retribution not exclusively to the adjudicator, yet additionally to all the individuals of London. The theater creation started with a great organizing of scariness to encourage the state of mind of the title itself. My consideration was caught when the play started. The thick fog offers path to a whole ?black market? of Londoners. They come out with their drain ensembles and worn-looking appearances. In cut-off terse expressions they sing stanzas of the Sweeney Todd ditty. The number is critical to the play. Each time I heard it, it just helped me to remember the shrewd that was in front of an audience. I think this was the reason for the tune - to keep the crowd's consideration centered around the madness encompassing Sweeney's slaughtering binge. The band of homeless people and road individuals advance toward the crowd in clothes and out of frustration. They are significant in indicating Sweeney's character from the get-go in the show. To finish the entertainers' motivation, Sweeney Todd himself ascends from the pits underneath. His face has abhorrence and retribution composed on top of it. Sweeney Todd was exceptionally persuading with his job. He has one of the most propelled jobs, yet it is loaded up with dim amusingness. In on scene where he is continuing to cut throat after throat, a client comes in with his family. Sweeney just looks on in aggravation and disappointment. It is entertaining. Sweeney permits the crowd to encounter a few feelings - from repulsiveness and skepticism to compassion and empathy. In spite of the fact that Sweeney is submitting dangerous acts, he is carrying on of the adoration for his family. His girl has been taken from him and his better half's life has been demolished (despite the fact that he thinks she is dead). Sweeney makes his wrath all the more startling with the baritone voice, particularly in ?My Friends?. This tune is a curved tribute to his razors. His pleasure of being brought together with his razors is kind of an abnormal encounter. It is as though he is enamored with them. Sweeney was extremely precise in taking the crowd on a rush ride right to the end where he picked up the last piece of compassion in finding that he had in deed executed his own significant other. Mrs. Lovett was a remarkable character. She is completely superb as the lively yet forlorn bar fancy woman. She shows her craving to feel needed and cherished a little bit at a time. In any case, her arrangements reach a conclusion when Sweeney finds her untruthfulness about his better half. Susan Boyle plays Mrs. Lovett with a mix of confidence, cunning personal responsibility, and mind. With the adaptability of the entertainer character job, you nearly disregard the revolting behavior where she is included. Mrs. Lovett's thought is to transform Todd's casualties into meat pies. It is bizarre, yet in addition spine shivering. She has all the characteristics of playing out an effective Mrs. Lovett. She has the operatic quality and wonderful comic planning. Boyle pulls off a spectacular exhibition in changing such a coldhearted demonstration into unadulterated parody. Toward the finish of the main demonstration, as she and Todd sing ?A Little Priest?, Boyle utilizes her mind to indicate the helpfulness of Sweeney's casualties. In Act II when Mrs. Lovett sings ?By the Sea? (a tune that demonstrates her yearning to be with Sweeney Todd, while he yells on about Judge Turpin) she is expressive in both way and voice. You wind up thinking about what happens to Mrs. Lovett regardless of her shameless deeds. Susan Boyle (Mrs. Lovett) has an awesome voice; and singing while at the same time doing five or ten different things on the double is very troublesome. By the by, she pulls them off amazingly. Her voice is an observable one and you can finish it any disarray. With all genuineness I figure the play would have been missing satire, amicability, and completeness without her. She was unquestionably the more vital character. Judge Turpin was increasingly similar to the shadow of obscurity over the play. He was in a split second discounted as a man of Sweeney Tod Essays - Sweeney Todd, British Films, Sweeney Tod Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Sweeney Todd depends on the nineteenth century drama about a London criminal. Todd is kind of depicted as a respectable figure headed to wrongdoing when Judge Turpin takes his better half and youngster from him. He is unjustifiably detained and pledges vengeance not exclusively to the appointed authority, yet additionally to all the individuals of London. The theater creation started with an amazing organizing of spookiness to assist the temperament of the title itself. My consideration was caught when the play started. The thick fog offers path to a whole ?black market? of Londoners. They come out with their drain ensembles and worn-looking appearances. In cut-off abbreviated expressions they sing refrains of the Sweeney Todd anthem. The song is critical to the play. Each time I heard it, it just helped me to remember the malicious that was in front of an audience. I think this was the motivation behind the tune - to keep the crowd's consideration centered around the craziness encompassing Sweeney's executing binge. The band of poor people and road individuals advance toward the crowd in clothes and out of resentment. They are significant in demonstrating Sweeney's character right off the bat in the show. To finish the on-screen characters' motivation, Sweeney Todd himself ascends from the pits beneath. His face has malevolence and v engeance composed on top of it. Sweeney Todd was exceptionally persuading with his job. He has one of the most motivated jobs, yet it is loaded up with dim funniness. In on scene where he is continuing to cut throat after throat, a client comes in with his family. Sweeney just looks on in bothering and dissatisfaction. It is diverting. Sweeney permits the crowd to encounter a few feelings - from frightfulness and doubt to compassion and empathy. In spite of the fact that Sweeney is submitting deadly acts, he is carrying on of the affection for his family. His little girl has been taken from him and his significant other's life has been destroyed (in spite of the fact that he thinks she is dead). Sweeney makes his anger all the more terrifying with the baritone voice, particularly in ?My Friends?. This tune is a turned tribute to his razors. His pleasure of being brought together with his razors is kind of a peculiar encounter. It is as though he is enamored with them. Sweeney was extremely precise in taking the cro wd on a rush ride right to the end where he picked up the last piece of compassion in finding that he had in deed slaughtered his own better half. Mrs. Lovett was a remarkable character. She is totally brilliant as the merry yet forlorn bar fancy woman. She shows her longing to feel needed and cherished a little bit at a time. Notwithstanding, her arrangements reach a conclusion when Sweeney finds her deceptive nature about his better half. Susan Boyle plays Mrs. Lovett with a blend of good faith, cunning personal circumstance, and mind. With the adaptability of the entertainer character job, you nearly disregard the ugly direct in which she is included. Mrs. Lovett's thought is to transform Todd's casualties into meat pies. It is ludicrous, yet in addition spine shivering. She has all the characteristics of playing out an effective Mrs. Lovett. She has the operatic quality and amazing comic planning. Boyle pulls off a breathtaking exhibition in changing such a coldhearted demonstration into unadulterated parody. Toward the finish of the primary demonstration, as she and Todd sing ?A Little Priest?, Boyle utilizes her mind to allude to the handiness of Sweeney's casualties. In Act II when Mrs. Lovett sings ?By the Sea? (a tune that demonstrates her aching to be with Sweeney Todd, while he yells on about Judge Turpin) she is expressive in both way and voice. You wind up thinking about what happens to Mrs. Lovett notwithstanding her shameless deeds. Susan Boyle (Mrs. Lovett) has a great voice; and singing while at the same time doing five or ten different things on the double is very troublesome. By the by, she pulls them off astoundingly. Her voice is a perceptible one and you can finish it any disarray. With all genuineness I figure the play would have been missing satire, agreement, and completeness without her. She was certainly the more important character. Judge Turpin was progressively similar to the shadow of obscurity over the play. He was in a split second discounted as a man of
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1409 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/18 Category Analytics Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Relationship Essay Stereotypes Essay Did you like this example? Comparative Essay - - Write a comparative analysis of Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ by Robert Frost and Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ by R. S. Thomas. Highlight each poetÃ¢â¬â¢s distinct attitude towards old age. Comment on the style through which the poets express how they feel about old age. Both Frost and Thomas draw upon the theme of old age in their poems. However in Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ the theme of old age is portrayed as a positive thing and the persona defies the stereotype. Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ we are presented with the stereotype about old age and old age is portrayed in a more negative light. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society old age is often seen as a negative thing. Old people are being made to feel useless as they lose there independence. However some of them defy this stereotype and are still doing everyday activities with ease. Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ are relevant to us because they are about old age and how it is both positive and negative. In the poem Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ Job Davies is still farming and enjoying life even though heÃ¢â¬â¢s eighty-five. Job Davies, eighty-five/Winters old, and still aliveÃ¢â¬ Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ the old man is conveyed as frail, scared and he obviously feels useless to society which follows the natural stereotype of old age. Frost and Thomas both appreciate the beauty and harshness of nature to a certain extent. They both realise that it can be mans worst enemy. Frost draws on the typical stereotype of old age and often used physical isolation to reflect mans emotional isolation. Whereas, Thomas who was an Anglican clergyman worked with elderly people and he goes against the typical stereotype. He had an understanding of old peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes and fears. He incorporated that into his poems. The biggest difference is that Thomas views nature as a rejuvenating source f or humans if they embrace it. Nature plays a part in both of the poems. However it is portrayed in two very different ways. Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in the welsh countryside, which is where most of ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s poems were set. His daytime setting Ã¢â¬Å"dawnÃ¢â¬ reflects the message of the poem, and how it is a new beginning and brings a sense of hope. Also the persona knows his surroundings. This adds to him being more enthusiastic about his work and how he feels that age is just a number. However in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ there is a huge difference in the setting as there is a sense of death, fear and the end due to the old house and the night time darkness. In contrast to Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ the persona feels threatened and terrified by his surroundings and by this also feels useless, which follows the typical stereotype about old age. Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ to an extent are reflective poems and throughout them their tone changes. In Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ the persona is very fearful, Ã¢â¬Å"and scared the outer night/which has sounds familiar, like the roar/of trees This suggests that the sounds of nature are apparently familiar to the old man but yet they still seem to threaten him. In old age he has become more vulnerable. Throughout the poem the old man comes off as being very lonely, Ã¢â¬Å"That gathers on the pane in empty rooms. Ã¢â¬ This emptiness is symbolic for the loneliness in the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ the tone is the complete opposite of Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ In the first and second stanzas the tone is informal, enthusiastic and defiant, Ã¢â¬Å"Miserable? Kick my arse! Ã¢â¬ Job is showing that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter about age and thus adopts a defiant tone. In the last two stanzas the tone changes from being defiant to reflective, Ã¢â¬Å"Live large, man, and dream smal l. Ã¢â¬ This suggests that Job has immersed himself in nature and wants others to do the same, also this gives him sustenance. The viewpoints differ in the both poems as they are two very different poems. In Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ the narration is in first person. This means that Job is directly addressing the reader throughout the poem. His rhetorical questions challenge the reader, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s living but courage? Ã¢â¬ This adds to the defiant tone. The persona in the poem does not lack confidence, Ã¢â¬Å"The great perch of my laugh. Ã¢â¬ This light hearted allusion to a chirpy bird suggests height and power. The use of 1st person reinforces JobÃ¢â¬â¢s feistiness. On the other hand, Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ has an omniscient narrator which means that it is being told from an all-seeing point of view, in contrast to Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢. Compared to Job the old man in this poem lacks confidence, Ã¢â¬Å"He consigned to the moon This suggests that the persona is not confident and seems to feel useless. Someone else must tell the story for him. Both poetsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes to old age differ. In Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ Thomas uses Job to portray that old age is not a negative thing and that it can be thought of as a new beginning, particularly if one draws on the sustenance offered by nature. However in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ Frost thinks there is a fraught relationship between man and nature because in the poem the old man seems to fear nature, Ã¢â¬Å"and scared the outer night This is symbolic of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of nature. Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ has a regular rhyme scheme, whereas Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ has no specific rhyme scheme. The rhyming pattern in Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasises the rhythm of Jobs work, as when you read the poem its pace is upbeat and fast, just like Job. Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ there is only one stanza. This repre sents the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s separation from the rest of the world and nature. The poem is also a narrative poem which in contrast to Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ is told in a third person view. This also adds to the sense of loneliness and separation from the rest of the world. Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ both use enjambment, but to different effects. They also use parenthesis in their poems. However in Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ the rhyme scheme emphasises Jobs rhythm of work. He also has a jump in his step while he is telling us about his life and work. On the other hand Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ has no set rhyme scheme which makes the character of the old man seem more realistic. It is also symbolic of the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s loneliness and separation from the rest of the world. Thomas and Frost both incorporate the image of old men and nature/outside world. They also associate winter with death and portray nature as a harsh mis tress. The rhetorical questions in Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ are challenges to the reader, and this adds the feel of defiance. The image of Ã¢â¬Å"beardedÃ¢â¬ not only leads us to think of old age and old men but also shows the extent of Jobs immersion in nature. Thomas uses the images of Ã¢â¬Å"porridgeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"teaÃ¢â¬ which are both traditional hearty foods which help to add to the image of the old farmer. Colloquialisms make the character of Job seem more realistic. Also the image of dawn shows that age can be the start of something new and not something that should be looked down upon. However in Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ images of the night time shows that the poet considers old age to be the end. Onomatopoeic verbs like Ã¢â¬Å"creakingÃ¢â¬ emphasise the emptiness of old age. Light is used as a symbol, Ã¢â¬Å"a light he was to no-one but himselfÃ¢â¬ this conveys he is no use to anyone and that it follows the typical stereotype of age. Frost uses alliteration in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"beating on a boxÃ¢â¬ emphasises the echoing emptiness of the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s house, his loneliness and his separation from the natural world. In conclusion I would have to say that I preferred Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ as it was a more enjoyable poem to read compared to Ã¢â¬ËAn old manÃ¢â¬â¢s winter nightÃ¢â¬â¢ I felt that this poem was too confusing with its language and imagery. I also found that Ã¢â¬ËLoreÃ¢â¬â¢ defies the typical stereotype and I like how it does this and that is why I prefer this poem. Gareth Hamill DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Comparitive Essay" essay for you Create order
Friday, May 15, 2020
As an upper-middle income country with high spending on healthcare, South Africa has been performing poorly on certain health indicators (as seen in Table 1), with their biggest issue being in the fight against HIV/AIDS (Country and Lending Groups, n.d.). They have one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS in the world at 19.1%, and the incidence of new cases is increasing steadily (Milan, 2014; CIA, n.d.). To combat this growing problem President Jacob Zuma launched the largest HIV Counseling and Testing campaign in the world in April 2010 (Ã¢â¬Å"Global AIDSÃ¢â¬ , 2012). In the same year, the country also achieved a significant reduction in the price of antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) (Ã¢â¬Å"Global AIDSÃ¢â¬ , 2012). Despite this progress, theseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As seen in Figure 1, the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women increased dramatically from 1990-2010 (Medwiser, n.d.; Ã¢â¬ Eliminating mother-to-childÃ¢â¬ , 2012). South Africa needs to de vote greater resources on this group, in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, so these women do not pass it on to their future children. Figure 1. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women, South Africa, 1990-2010 (Ã¢â¬Å"Eliminating mother-to-childÃ¢â¬ , 2012) To combat mother-to-child transmission of HIV, the South African government implemented a PMTCT program in 2001 (Bodibe, 2013). When the program began, pregnant women with HIV took just a single tablet of a drug called Nevirapine during labor to prevent transmission, with very little intervention of any kind before and after the birth of the child (Bodibe, 2013). At the time the CDC recommended that women should avoid breastfeeding because it was another route of HIV transmission (Kuhn Kroon, 2015). From the CDCÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation, the South African government committed to supplying formula to HIV-positive mothers (Bodibe,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Describe and discuss two factors that Milgram found effect obedience? Refer to empirical evidence in your answer MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s original study into obedience came under to a lot of scrutiny because of both mythological and ethical problems. This meant that the validity of MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s study was put into question. Following the study were further investigations to see what might change and explain the results that Milgram found, both by Milgram himself and other psychologists. Variations to his study throw up interesting theories to the situational and dispositional factors that might affect levels of obedience. One variation of MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s study investigated the role that buffers may have on the level of obedience of a individual. TwoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The ecological validity in this experiment is greater than that in MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s variation; this means that it can be generalised to everyday situations and can explain why peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience may increase if the level if perceived authority and status increases and when the opposite effect occurs. To conclude, situational factors as seen above have been found to affect the level of obedience that somebody shows. However, there are important dispositional factors that need to be taken into consideration. People with a authoritarian personality may have a disposition to have a higher level of obedience. Milgram found that the among the people who gave the highest shocks did indeed have a authoritarian personality and blamed the leaner for the obedience. Crutchfield lead findings into conformity (1955); he found that conformers tend to have a high authoritarian views and were generally submissive. Obedience involves complex social roles this explains the link between personality, conformity and obedience. Privately a participant may not want to administer the shock, but publically when told to do so is submissive andShow MoreRelatedThe Milgram Study On Obedience1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Milgram study was considered to be one of the most famous studies, on obedience in the hi story of psychology. The Milgram study was done by Stanley Milgram a Yale University psychologist, whose study was to focus on two things one being obedience to authority, and a persons personal conscience. The results of the study were remarkable, as according to (McLeod, 2007) 65 percent of two-thirds of the participants or teachers continued administering shocks to the highest voltage level of 450 voltsRead MoreBehavioral Study Of Obedience By Stanley Milgram1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Behavioral Study of ObedienceÃ¢â¬ by Stanley Milgram (1963) Stanley Milgram Yale University Group 1: Wasis Ali, Christopher Okpala, Michelle Walden, Estefany Majano General Psychology 1010 Ms. Thompson Spring Semester, March 17, 2014 Introduction In 1961, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology published an article by Stanley Milgram, a researcher at Yale University, and his study testing obedience towards political influence vs towards morals and values taught from an early ageRead MoreStanley Milgram s Obedience Study1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPsychology 230 Stanley MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience study has become one of the most timeless experiments and is thought of as a work of art. In this experiment, Milgram examined if individuals would take requests from authority figures regardless if they felt that the requests were ethical or not. Milgram chose members for this study by daily paper advertising for male participants to partake in an investigation at Yale University. In World War II, Nazis justified killings by saying that they were simplyRead MoreBehavioral Study Of Obedience By Stanley Milgram1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexperiment performed by Stanley Milgram titled Ã¢â¬Å"Behavioral Study of ObedienceÃ¢â¬ . Stanley Milgram conducted his study in June of 1961 at Yale University. Three months prior to the start of the experiment, a former Nazi war criminal named Adolf Eichmann was put on trial for his involvement with the Nazi party. At the time, society questioned whether Eichmann and other war criminals could be held responsible for their crimes or if they were simply following orders. Milgram designed his experiment to shedRead MoreThe Fundamental Attribution Error : The Milgram Obedience Study Performed By Stanley Milgram957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessituation. Studies show that in most cases socially we want to fit in with a group, donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be different, donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be wrong, and in many instances act different than what our typical personality and values are based on influencing social factors. One of the main factors that often contributes to how we act in certain situations is to obey those in authority positions. The studies provided below are examples of the show how behaviors can change based on social factors. The Milgram ObedienceRead MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Behavioral Study Of Obedience 965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessubmission or obedience. Ã In Stanley MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Behavioral Study of ObedienceÃ¢â¬ , he elaborates on the notion of obedience with accordance to the behaviors of a higher power and his subjects. MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s defines obedience as Ã¢â¬Å"the psychological mechanism that links individualÃ actionÃ to politicalÃ pur-pose.Ã ItÃ is the dispositionalÃ cementÃ thatÃ binds men to systems of authorityÃ¢â¬ (371). MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment was conducted with response to the Nazi war trials. Through experimentation, Milgram discovered theRead MoreThe Concentration Camps : Dr. Milgram s Study On Obedience Of Everyday Normal People990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshe does best to find support for his position from others in his group. The mutual support provided by men for each other is the strongest bulwark we have against the excesses of authority. (Milgram, 1974) In 1963, the Yale psychologist Milgram had performed a very controversial experiment on the obedience of participants towards an authorityÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. He had discovered that a very small marginal of participants could resist the demands of an authority figure. This experiment was about learningRead MoreOutline the Simalarities and Differences Between Milgrams (1963) Obedience Study and Burgers (2009) Replication1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKaren Bullen R2208481 DE 100 Investigating Psychology 1 TMA02 Outline the similarities and differences between Milgrams (1963) obedience study and Burgers (2009) replication. This essay will look at an important key psychological experiment carried out by the renowned social psychologist Stanley Milgram which was carried out in the early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s (Banyard 2012) to determine how far ordinary people would go to inflict pain to a fellow human based on instruction from an authority figure, andRead MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Perils Of Obedience Essay1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStill, many questions still remain prevalent as to how an individual reaches his or her decision on obedience in a distressing environment. Inspired by Nazi trials, Stanley Milgram, an American psychologist, questions the social norm in Ã¢â¬Å"Perils of ObedienceÃ¢â¬ (1964), where he conducted a study to test how far the average American was willing to for under the pressures of an authority figure. Milgram s study showed that under the orders of an authoritative figure, 64% of average Americans had the capabilityRead MoreStanley Milgram s Research On Obedience863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStanley Milgram s groundbreaking studies on obedience certainly shocked the world with their electrifying results. The experiment that Milgram conducted included ordinary people delivering Ã¢â¬Å"shocksÃ¢â¬ to an unknown subject, which caused much controversy to occur and raised many questions in the psychological world. Diana Baumrind, a psychologist at the University of California and one of MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues, attacks MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics in her review. She decides that Milgram s tests are unethical towards
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theStatutory Interpretationfor Identification Phase. Answer: Introduction In the mentioned case, Brian being an expert of demolition of buildings is contacted by Matthew to advise him on the procedure of safe demolition of a huge building. Brian gives a brief explanation about the demolition procedure to Matthew and his men. Matthew insisted Brian to give expert advice regarding his plan to demolish a building in order to construct a shopping centre overseas. He left the plans with Brian for future advice. A terrorist attack is caused few days later at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne and the federal police arrests him under section 101.2 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 [Cth]. The Criminal Code Act 1995 [Cth] shall be applicable in the given factual circumstances. As per section 101.2 of the Act, any person who gives or receives training relating to the preparation for or engagement of a person in or providing assistance in a terrorist act is said to have committed an offence and is liable to imprisonment for term of 25 years. In the given scenario, Brian provides adequate information to Matthew regarding demolition of the building. He had the building demolition plans with him, which compelled the Federal Police to arrest him for the alleged Terrorist act. In the given scenario, the Federal Police arrested Brian under section 101.2 of the Act, which states if any person provides training or assistance or is in connection with a terrorist act, such person is said to have committed a terrorist act. The police investigated that he provided training on demolishing of buildings to Matthew and possessed building demolishing plan of the Rialto Tower. However, although Brian was not involved in the alleged terrorist act, he is alleged to have committed an offence under section 101.1 of the Act Criminal Code Act 1995. Operative Provisions The Federal police arrested Brian and was charged under the section 101.2 sub-section  of the Criminal Code Act . The officers told him that he is alleged to have committed the offence of causing terrorist attack at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne. The officers charged him for giving advice to the terrorists on demolishing of the building. He admitted that he did give advice to Matthew and his men on demolishing a building safely as Matthew wanted to demolish a building to create a shopping centre. He was not aware of the fact that Matthew and his men were planning to demolish a building with the people inside the building. The officers also alleged Brian to have been giving advice to people on demolishing buildings recklessly without confirming the identification of people. Brian admitted that he did not collect much information about Matthew and his men and neither did he check on the existence of the building that Matthew claimed to own. Based on these facts, the Federal Police officers alleged Brian to have committed an offence under section 101.2 and that he was engaged in the terrorist act as per Section 101.1 of the Act. The fact that Brian had given advice on demolishing of the building and provided detailed information about which explosives to be used and exactly where the same should be positioned in the building, led the officers to believe that Brian was engaged in the terrorist attack at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne. The officers believed that if Brian did not have any intention to conduct a terrorist attack, then he would have confirmed about Matthew and his men before giving them advice on demolition of buildings. Brian did not consider it important to confirm whether there was any such building overseas he so claims to own. These facts made the officers believe that he was engaged in the preparation of terrorist act and is in connection with the terrorists and charged him under Section 101.2  of the Criminal Code Act 1995. Further, the officers alleged that Brian has been recklessly giving advice to people without obtaining adequate information about the people. The officers relied on the subsection (2) of Section 101.2 that Brian has recklessly given advice to the terrorist, which establishes the fact that he knew the terrorists and was in connection with the people planning or preparing a terrorist attack. Furthermore, the officer relied on subsection (1) of section 101.4 of the Act, which stipulates that if a person possessed a thing that is associated with the preparation and engagement of a terror act and the person is in connection with the people planning to conduct such terror act, the person is said to have committed an offense. In the given circumstances, Brian possessed the plans for conducting a bomb-blast in the Rialto Tower that was followed to implement the attack. Exploration Phase In this part of the paper, the actual purpose provided by section 101 of the Act is discussed. Section 101 is divided into 4 subsections each of them dealing with different situation in which a person can be held liable for the breach of provisions provided by the act. Statutory interpretation can be done based on three rules which are namely the Literal rule, the golden rule and the, mischief rule. According to the literal rule of interpretation, the courts provide a dictionary meaning to the provisions provided by the Act in order to bring out the intention of the legislature. According to the golden rule, the court deviates from the dictionary meaning of the provisions and gives it a new meaning but only if such meaning provides ambiguity to the statue and if such meaning is provided it would defeat the intention of the legislature. According to the mischief rule of interpretation the court considers the fact that the present legislation was passed to cover a mischief, wh ich present previously and such mischief is addressed by the new legislation, when it interprets the provisions of the statue. It can be analyzed by going through the provisions of Section 101 that the main purpose of the section is to identify the situation in which a person can be held responsible for committing a terrorist activity. Through the Section 101.1, the legislature has provided that any person who engages in a terrorist act is committing an offence. This section has a very clear meaning and there is no need to interpret it in any other way than the literal way or else it would defeat the purpose of the legislature to punish the individual committing a terrorist act. Through Section 101.1 of the Act, the legislature provides the specific circumstances in which a person can be held liable for providing training in relation to the terrorist act. Part one of the section provides that a person who receives or provides training with respect to a terrorist activity and has the knowledge of the same is liable under this cat. Here by the words knows the connection the legislature provides that the indivi dual must have the intention and knowledge to provide or receive training with respect to a terrorist activity according to the literal rule. In part two of the sub section 101.2 the legislature provides that a person who is providing or receiving training with respect to a terrorist activity without any knowledge or intention is also liable for breach of Section 101 if the individual is reckless. Here the word reckless provided by the legislature means that an act committed by an individual having knowledge of its potential danger but not taking reasonable precautions to address the danger carelessly. A person can only be liable under this provision if he had knowledge about the potential danger of the act he had been involved in. The person can also be involved in a terrorist activity if he has been in possession of a thing in relation to the terrorist activity or any other terrorist activity according to sub section 101.4. The Section further provides that a person can be h eld responsible even if a terrorist activity does not occur but the person had intention to cause the terrorist activity or even if he had been involved in any other terrorist activity. Thus it can be analyzed that the main purpose of section 101 is to provide that a person can be held responsible for a terrorist activity by providing or receiving training or being possession of a thing in relation to a terrorist activity having intention to commit such act or committing such act in a reckless manner. Application Phase In this part of the paper the rules of statutory interpretation would be applied to provision 101.2 and 101.4 of the Act so that it can be proved before the court that that Brian is guilty for the offence according to the Act. According to Section 101.2, an offence is said to be committed by a person if he had been engaged in receiving or providing training and such training is in relation to engagement or preparation or providing assistance with respect to a terrorist activity. The Section also applies if a person is found in possession of anything in relation to facilitating a terrorist activity. The legislature further provides that the individual must have knowledge that he is being engaged in a terrorist activity or had been reckless in ignoring the potential damage of his actions. In the present scenario it can been seen that Brian had no intention to engage in a terrorist activity and he further had no idea that Mathew and the three person along with him had intentions of causing a terrorist activity. It has to be noted in this case that Brian is a professional building Demolisher. It has to be assumed that he would have the knowledge that how dangerous a demolition process can be to the public. it also has to be assumed in this case that he should know the consequences of such techniques falling in wrong hand. According to the principles of statutory interpretation it is not the job of the court to doubt the ability of the parliament and to only provide proper meaning to the provisions in order to bring out the intention of the parliament. The court can only divert from the literal meaning of the provisions if it is causing ambiguity or if it is not able to solve the defect it was introduced to address. According to the section 101.2 it can be clearly indentified that Brian had been reckless in providing information and advice to Mathew about the demolition process without taking reasonable precautions to know that whether the building belong to Mathew or not. As he is a professional demolished he should have been aware of the risk of his actions. He should have taken proper precaution before providing such critical information to an unknown person. Here the question before the court is not to determine whether the result is fair or not but to give proper meaning to the word reckless This can be made simple through this example. A gun manufacturer cannot just sell a gun to anyone without verifying the fact that for what reason the gun is sought to be bought. If he does so he would be libel to the contribution in crime committed by the buyer. According to Section 101.4 a person can be held liable for a terrorist act if he is found in possession of which is in connection to engagement, assistance or preparation of a terrorist activity and has knowledge about such activity or had not taken reasonable precautions towards avoiding the potential dangers of such activity. According to Sub section 5 of the act a person would not be responsible if he had no intention to cause a terrorist activity in relation to the possession of such thing. However it can be determined in this case that Brian being a professional must have verified the facts in relation to the building when he had the plan and thus he has been reckless according to part 3 (c) of Section 101.4. Thus he would be liable to be prosecuted under this Section and serve imprisonment. Reference Walker, Christopher J. "Inside agency statutory interpretation." (2014). Nourse, Victoria. "Elementary Statutory Interpretation: Rethinking Legislative Intent and History." (2014). Shobe, Jarrod. "Intertemporal Statutory Interpretation and the Evolution of Legislative Drafting."Colum. L. Rev.114 (2014): 807. Staszewski, Glen. "The Dumbing Down of Statutory Interpretation." (2015). Sartor, Giovanni, et al. "Argumentation Schemes for Statutory Interpretation: A Logical Analysis."JURIX. 2014. Anderson, Jill C. "Misleading like a Lawyer: Cognitive Bias in Statutory Interpretation."Harv. L. Rev.127 (2013): 1521. Kavanaugh, Brett M. "Fixing Statutory Interpretation." (2015): 2118. Solan, Lawrence M. "Precedent in Statutory Interpretation." (2016). Ekins, Richard. "Interpretive Choice in Statutory Interpretation."Am. J. Juris.59 (2014): 1. Seidenfeld, Mark. "A process failure theory of statutory interpretation." (2013). Eskridge Jr, William N. "Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal texts." (2013): 531-592.