Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Comparitive Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1409 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/18 Category Analytics Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Relationship Essay Stereotypes Essay Did you like this example? Comparative Essay - - Write a comparative analysis of ‘An old man’s winter night’ by Robert Frost and ‘Lore’ by R. S. Thomas. Highlight each poet’s distinct attitude towards old age. Comment on the style through which the poets express how they feel about old age. Both Frost and Thomas draw upon the theme of old age in their poems. However in ‘Lore’ the theme of old age is portrayed as a positive thing and the persona defies the stereotype. Whereas in ‘An old man’s winter night’ we are presented with the stereotype about old age and old age is portrayed in a more negative light. In today’s society old age is often seen as a negative thing. Old people are being made to feel useless as they lose there independence. However some of them defy this stereotype and are still doing everyday activities with ease. ‘Lore’ and ‘An old man’s winter night’ are relevant to us because they are about old age and how it is both positive and negative. In the poem ‘Lore’ Job Davies is still farming and enjoying life even though he’s eighty-five. Job Davies, eighty-five/Winters old, and still alive† Whereas in ‘An old man’s winter night’ the old man is conveyed as frail, scared and he obviously feels useless to society which follows the natural stereotype of old age. Frost and Thomas both appreciate the beauty and harshness of nature to a certain extent. They both realise that it can be mans worst enemy. Frost draws on the typical stereotype of old age and often used physical isolation to reflect mans emotional isolation. Whereas, Thomas who was an Anglican clergyman worked with elderly people and he goes against the typical stereotype. He had an understanding of old people’s hopes and fears. He incorporated that into his poems. The biggest difference is that Thomas views nature as a rejuvenating source f or humans if they embrace it. Nature plays a part in both of the poems. However it is portrayed in two very different ways. ‘Lore’ is set in the welsh countryside, which is where most of Thomas’s poems were set. His daytime setting â€Å"dawn† reflects the message of the poem, and how it is a new beginning and brings a sense of hope. Also the persona knows his surroundings. This adds to him being more enthusiastic about his work and how he feels that age is just a number. However in ‘An old man’s winter night’ there is a huge difference in the setting as there is a sense of death, fear and the end due to the old house and the night time darkness. In contrast to ‘Lore’ the persona feels threatened and terrified by his surroundings and by this also feels useless, which follows the typical stereotype about old age. ‘Lore’ and ‘An old man’s winter night’ to an extent are reflective poems and throughout them their tone changes. In ‘An old man’s winter night’ the persona is very fearful, â€Å"and scared the outer night/which has sounds familiar, like the roar/of trees This suggests that the sounds of nature are apparently familiar to the old man but yet they still seem to threaten him. In old age he has become more vulnerable. Throughout the poem the old man comes off as being very lonely, â€Å"That gathers on the pane in empty rooms. † This emptiness is symbolic for the loneliness in the old man’s life. Whereas in ‘Lore’ the tone is the complete opposite of ‘An old man’s winter night’ In the first and second stanzas the tone is informal, enthusiastic and defiant, â€Å"Miserable? Kick my arse! † Job is showing that it doesn’t matter about age and thus adopts a defiant tone. In the last two stanzas the tone changes from being defiant to reflective, â€Å"Live large, man, and dream smal l. † This suggests that Job has immersed himself in nature and wants others to do the same, also this gives him sustenance. The viewpoints differ in the both poems as they are two very different poems. In ‘Lore’ the narration is in first person. This means that Job is directly addressing the reader throughout the poem. His rhetorical questions challenge the reader, â€Å"What’s living but courage? † This adds to the defiant tone. The persona in the poem does not lack confidence, â€Å"The great perch of my laugh. † This light hearted allusion to a chirpy bird suggests height and power. The use of 1st person reinforces Job’s feistiness. On the other hand, ‘An old man’s winter night’ has an omniscient narrator which means that it is being told from an all-seeing point of view, in contrast to ‘Lore’. Compared to Job the old man in this poem lacks confidence, â€Å"He consigned to the moon This suggests that the persona is not confident and seems to feel useless. Someone else must tell the story for him. Both poets’ attitudes to old age differ. In ‘Lore’ Thomas uses Job to portray that old age is not a negative thing and that it can be thought of as a new beginning, particularly if one draws on the sustenance offered by nature. However in ‘An old man’s winter night’ Frost thinks there is a fraught relationship between man and nature because in the poem the old man seems to fear nature, â€Å"and scared the outer night This is symbolic of the man’s fear of nature. ‘Lore’ has a regular rhyme scheme, whereas ‘An old man’s winter night’ has no specific rhyme scheme. The rhyming pattern in ‘Lore’ emphasises the rhythm of Jobs work, as when you read the poem its pace is upbeat and fast, just like Job. Whereas in ‘An old man’s winter night’ there is only one stanza. This repre sents the old man’s separation from the rest of the world and nature. The poem is also a narrative poem which in contrast to ‘Lore’ is told in a third person view. This also adds to the sense of loneliness and separation from the rest of the world. ‘Lore’ and ‘An old man’s winter night’ both use enjambment, but to different effects. They also use parenthesis in their poems. However in ‘Lore’ the rhyme scheme emphasises Jobs rhythm of work. He also has a jump in his step while he is telling us about his life and work. On the other hand ‘An old man’s winter night’ has no set rhyme scheme which makes the character of the old man seem more realistic. It is also symbolic of the old man’s loneliness and separation from the rest of the world. Thomas and Frost both incorporate the image of old men and nature/outside world. They also associate winter with death and portray nature as a harsh mis tress. The rhetorical questions in ‘Lore’ are challenges to the reader, and this adds the feel of defiance. The image of â€Å"bearded† not only leads us to think of old age and old men but also shows the extent of Jobs immersion in nature. Thomas uses the images of â€Å"porridge† and â€Å"tea† which are both traditional hearty foods which help to add to the image of the old farmer. Colloquialisms make the character of Job seem more realistic. Also the image of dawn shows that age can be the start of something new and not something that should be looked down upon. However in ‘An old man’s winter night’ images of the night time shows that the poet considers old age to be the end. Onomatopoeic verbs like â€Å"creaking† emphasise the emptiness of old age. Light is used as a symbol, â€Å"a light he was to no-one but himself† this conveys he is no use to anyone and that it follows the typical stereotype of age. Frost uses alliteration in his poem, â€Å"beating on a box† emphasises the echoing emptiness of the old man’s house, his loneliness and his separation from the natural world. In conclusion I would have to say that I preferred ‘Lore’ as it was a more enjoyable poem to read compared to ‘An old man’s winter night’ I felt that this poem was too confusing with its language and imagery. I also found that ‘Lore’ defies the typical stereotype and I like how it does this and that is why I prefer this poem. Gareth Hamill Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Comparitive Essay" essay for you Create order

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Hiv / Aids Epidemic - 1072 Words

As an upper-middle income country with high spending on healthcare, South Africa has been performing poorly on certain health indicators (as seen in Table 1), with their biggest issue being in the fight against HIV/AIDS (Country and Lending Groups, n.d.). They have one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS in the world at 19.1%, and the incidence of new cases is increasing steadily (Milan, 2014; CIA, n.d.). To combat this growing problem President Jacob Zuma launched the largest HIV Counseling and Testing campaign in the world in April 2010 (â€Å"Global AIDS†, 2012). In the same year, the country also achieved a significant reduction in the price of antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) (â€Å"Global AIDS†, 2012). Despite this progress, these†¦show more content†¦As seen in Figure 1, the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women increased dramatically from 1990-2010 (Medwiser, n.d.; †Eliminating mother-to-child†, 2012). South Africa needs to de vote greater resources on this group, in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, so these women do not pass it on to their future children. Figure 1. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women, South Africa, 1990-2010 (â€Å"Eliminating mother-to-child†, 2012) To combat mother-to-child transmission of HIV, the South African government implemented a PMTCT program in 2001 (Bodibe, 2013). When the program began, pregnant women with HIV took just a single tablet of a drug called Nevirapine during labor to prevent transmission, with very little intervention of any kind before and after the birth of the child (Bodibe, 2013). At the time the CDC recommended that women should avoid breastfeeding because it was another route of HIV transmission (Kuhn Kroon, 2015). From the CDC’s recommendation, the South African government committed to supplying formula to HIV-positive mothers (Bodibe,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

milgrams study into obedience - 777 Words

Describe and discuss two factors that Milgram found effect obedience? Refer to empirical evidence in your answer Milgram’s original study into obedience came under to a lot of scrutiny because of both mythological and ethical problems. This meant that the validity of Milgram’s study was put into question. Following the study were further investigations to see what might change and explain the results that Milgram found, both by Milgram himself and other psychologists. Variations to his study throw up interesting theories to the situational and dispositional factors that might affect levels of obedience. One variation of Milgram’s study investigated the role that buffers may have on the level of obedience of a individual. Two†¦show more content†¦The ecological validity in this experiment is greater than that in Milgram’s variation; this means that it can be generalised to everyday situations and can explain why people’s obedience may increase if the level if perceived authority and status increases and when the opposite effect occurs. To conclude, situational factors as seen above have been found to affect the level of obedience that somebody shows. However, there are important dispositional factors that need to be taken into consideration. People with a authoritarian personality may have a disposition to have a higher level of obedience. Milgram found that the among the people who gave the highest shocks did indeed have a authoritarian personality and blamed the leaner for the obedience. Crutchfield lead findings into conformity (1955); he found that conformers tend to have a high authoritarian views and were generally submissive. Obedience involves complex social roles this explains the link between personality, conformity and obedience. Privately a participant may not want to administer the shock, but publically when told to do so is submissive andShow MoreRelatedThe Milgram Study On Obedience1731 Words   |  7 PagesThe Milgram study was considered to be one of the most famous studies, on obedience in the hi story of psychology. The Milgram study was done by Stanley Milgram a Yale University psychologist, whose study was to focus on two things one being obedience to authority, and a persons personal conscience. The results of the study were remarkable, as according to (McLeod, 2007) 65 percent of two-thirds of the participants or teachers continued administering shocks to the highest voltage level of 450 voltsRead MoreBehavioral Study Of Obedience By Stanley Milgram1053 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Behavioral Study of Obedience† by Stanley Milgram (1963) Stanley Milgram Yale University Group 1: Wasis Ali, Christopher Okpala, Michelle Walden, Estefany Majano General Psychology 1010 Ms. Thompson Spring Semester, March 17, 2014 Introduction In 1961, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology published an article by Stanley Milgram, a researcher at Yale University, and his study testing obedience towards political influence vs towards morals and values taught from an early ageRead MoreStanley Milgram s Obedience Study1325 Words   |  6 PagesPsychology 230 Stanley Milgram’s obedience study has become one of the most timeless experiments and is thought of as a work of art. In this experiment, Milgram examined if individuals would take requests from authority figures regardless if they felt that the requests were ethical or not. Milgram chose members for this study by daily paper advertising for male participants to partake in an investigation at Yale University. In World War II, Nazis justified killings by saying that they were simplyRead MoreBehavioral Study Of Obedience By Stanley Milgram1313 Words   |  6 Pagesexperiment performed by Stanley Milgram titled â€Å"Behavioral Study of Obedience†. Stanley Milgram conducted his study in June of 1961 at Yale University. Three months prior to the start of the experiment, a former Nazi war criminal named Adolf Eichmann was put on trial for his involvement with the Nazi party. At the time, society questioned whether Eichmann and other war criminals could be held responsible for their crimes or if they were simply following orders. Milgram designed his experiment to shedRead MoreThe Fundamental Attribution Error : The Milgram Obedience Study Performed By Stanley Milgram957 Words   |  4 Pagessituation. Studies show that in most cases socially we want to fit in with a group, don’t want to be different, don’t want to be wrong, and in many instances act different than what our typical personality and values are based on influencing social factors. One of the main factors that often contributes to how we act in certain situations is to obey those in authority positions. The studies provided below are examples of the show how behaviors can change based on social factors. The Milgram ObedienceRead MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Behavioral Study Of Obedience 965 Words   |  4 Pagessubmission or obedience.   In Stanley Milgram’s â€Å"Behavioral Study of Obedience†, he elaborates on the notion of obedience with accordance to the behaviors of a higher power and his subjects. Milgram’s defines obedience as â€Å"the psychological mechanism that links individual  action  to political  pur-pose.  It  is the dispositional  cement  that  binds men to systems of authority† (371). Milgram’s experiment was conducted with response to the Nazi war trials. Through experimentation, Milgram discovered theRead MoreThe Concentration Camps : Dr. Milgram s Study On Obedience Of Everyday Normal People990 Words   |  4 Pageshe does best to find support for his position from others in his group. The mutual support provided by men for each other is the strongest bulwark we have against the excesses of authority. (Milgram, 1974) In 1963, the Yale psychologist Milgram had performed a very controversial experiment on the obedience of participants towards an authority’s orders. He had discovered that a very small marginal of participants could resist the demands of an authority figure. This experiment was about learningRead MoreOutline the Simalarities and Differences Between Milgrams (1963) Obedience Study and Burgers (2009) Replication1550 Words   |  7 PagesKaren Bullen R2208481 DE 100 Investigating Psychology 1 TMA02 Outline the similarities and differences between Milgrams (1963) obedience study and Burgers (2009) replication. This essay will look at an important key psychological experiment carried out by the renowned social psychologist Stanley Milgram which was carried out in the early 1960’s (Banyard 2012) to determine how far ordinary people would go to inflict pain to a fellow human based on instruction from an authority figure, andRead MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Perils Of Obedience Essay1709 Words   |  7 PagesStill, many questions still remain prevalent as to how an individual reaches his or her decision on obedience in a distressing environment. Inspired by Nazi trials, Stanley Milgram, an American psychologist, questions the social norm in â€Å"Perils of Obedience† (1964), where he conducted a study to test how far the average American was willing to for under the pressures of an authority figure. Milgram s study showed that under the orders of an authoritative figure, 64% of average Americans had the capabilityRead MoreStanley Milgram s Research On Obedience863 Words   |  4 PagesStanley Milgram s groundbreaking studies on obedience certainly shocked the world with their electrifying results. The experiment that Milgram conducted included ordinary people delivering â€Å"shocks† to an unknown subject, which caused much controversy to occur and raised many questions in the psychological world. Diana Baumrind, a psychologist at the University of California and one of Milgram’s colleagues, attacks Milgram’s ethics in her review. She decides that Milgram s tests are unethical towards

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Statutory Interpretation Identification Phase

Question: Discuss about theStatutory Interpretationfor Identification Phase. Answer: Introduction In the mentioned case, Brian being an expert of demolition of buildings is contacted by Matthew to advise him on the procedure of safe demolition of a huge building. Brian gives a brief explanation about the demolition procedure to Matthew and his men. Matthew insisted Brian to give expert advice regarding his plan to demolish a building in order to construct a shopping centre overseas. He left the plans with Brian for future advice. A terrorist attack is caused few days later at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne and the federal police arrests him under section 101.2 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 [Cth]. The Criminal Code Act 1995 [Cth] shall be applicable in the given factual circumstances. As per section 101.2 of the Act, any person who gives or receives training relating to the preparation for or engagement of a person in or providing assistance in a terrorist act is said to have committed an offence and is liable to imprisonment for term of 25 years. In the given scenario, Brian provides adequate information to Matthew regarding demolition of the building. He had the building demolition plans with him, which compelled the Federal Police to arrest him for the alleged Terrorist act. In the given scenario, the Federal Police arrested Brian under section 101.2 of the Act, which states if any person provides training or assistance or is in connection with a terrorist act, such person is said to have committed a terrorist act. The police investigated that he provided training on demolishing of buildings to Matthew and possessed building demolishing plan of the Rialto Tower. However, although Brian was not involved in the alleged terrorist act, he is alleged to have committed an offence under section 101.1 of the Act Criminal Code Act 1995. Operative Provisions The Federal police arrested Brian and was charged under the section 101.2 sub-section [1] of the Criminal Code Act [1995]. The officers told him that he is alleged to have committed the offence of causing terrorist attack at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne. The officers charged him for giving advice to the terrorists on demolishing of the building. He admitted that he did give advice to Matthew and his men on demolishing a building safely as Matthew wanted to demolish a building to create a shopping centre. He was not aware of the fact that Matthew and his men were planning to demolish a building with the people inside the building. The officers also alleged Brian to have been giving advice to people on demolishing buildings recklessly without confirming the identification of people. Brian admitted that he did not collect much information about Matthew and his men and neither did he check on the existence of the building that Matthew claimed to own. Based on these facts, the Federal Police officers alleged Brian to have committed an offence under section 101.2 and that he was engaged in the terrorist act as per Section 101.1 of the Act. The fact that Brian had given advice on demolishing of the building and provided detailed information about which explosives to be used and exactly where the same should be positioned in the building, led the officers to believe that Brian was engaged in the terrorist attack at the Rialto Tower in Melbourne. The officers believed that if Brian did not have any intention to conduct a terrorist attack, then he would have confirmed about Matthew and his men before giving them advice on demolition of buildings. Brian did not consider it important to confirm whether there was any such building overseas he so claims to own. These facts made the officers believe that he was engaged in the preparation of terrorist act and is in connection with the terrorists and charged him under Section 101.2 [1] of the Criminal Code Act 1995. Further, the officers alleged that Brian has been recklessly giving advice to people without obtaining adequate information about the people. The officers relied on the subsection (2) of Section 101.2 that Brian has recklessly given advice to the terrorist, which establishes the fact that he knew the terrorists and was in connection with the people planning or preparing a terrorist attack. Furthermore, the officer relied on subsection (1) of section 101.4 of the Act, which stipulates that if a person possessed a thing that is associated with the preparation and engagement of a terror act and the person is in connection with the people planning to conduct such terror act, the person is said to have committed an offense. In the given circumstances, Brian possessed the plans for conducting a bomb-blast in the Rialto Tower that was followed to implement the attack. Exploration Phase In this part of the paper, the actual purpose provided by section 101 of the Act is discussed. Section 101 is divided into 4 subsections each of them dealing with different situation in which a person can be held liable for the breach of provisions provided by the act. Statutory interpretation can be done based on three rules which are namely the Literal rule, the golden rule and the, mischief rule[1]. According to the literal rule of interpretation, the courts provide a dictionary meaning to the provisions provided by the Act in order to bring out the intention of the legislature[2]. According to the golden rule, the court deviates from the dictionary meaning of the provisions and gives it a new meaning but only if such meaning provides ambiguity to the statue and if such meaning is provided it would defeat the intention of the legislature[3]. According to the mischief rule of interpretation the court considers the fact that the present legislation was passed to cover a mischief, wh ich present previously and such mischief is addressed by the new legislation, when it interprets the provisions of the statue[4]. It can be analyzed by going through the provisions of Section 101 that the main purpose of the section is to identify the situation in which a person can be held responsible for committing a terrorist activity. Through the Section 101.1, the legislature has provided that any person who engages in a terrorist act is committing an offence. This section has a very clear meaning and there is no need to interpret it in any other way than the literal way or else it would defeat the purpose of the legislature to punish the individual committing a terrorist act. Through Section 101.1 of the Act, the legislature provides the specific circumstances in which a person can be held liable for providing training in relation to the terrorist act. Part one of the section provides that a person who receives or provides training with respect to a terrorist activity and has the knowledge of the same is liable under this cat. Here by the words knows the connection the legislature provides that the indivi dual must have the intention and knowledge to provide or receive training with respect to a terrorist activity according to the literal rule. In part two of the sub section 101.2 the legislature provides that a person who is providing or receiving training with respect to a terrorist activity without any knowledge or intention is also liable for breach of Section 101 if the individual is reckless. Here the word reckless provided by the legislature means that an act committed by an individual having knowledge of its potential danger but not taking reasonable precautions to address the danger carelessly[5]. A person can only be liable under this provision if he had knowledge about the potential danger of the act he had been involved in[6]. The person can also be involved in a terrorist activity if he has been in possession of a thing in relation to the terrorist activity or any other terrorist activity according to sub section 101.4. The Section further provides that a person can be h eld responsible even if a terrorist activity does not occur but the person had intention to cause the terrorist activity or even if he had been involved in any other terrorist activity. Thus it can be analyzed that the main purpose of section 101 is to provide that a person can be held responsible for a terrorist activity by providing or receiving training or being possession of a thing in relation to a terrorist activity having intention to commit such act or committing such act in a reckless manner. Application Phase In this part of the paper the rules of statutory interpretation would be applied to provision 101.2 and 101.4 of the Act so that it can be proved before the court that that Brian is guilty for the offence according to the Act. According to Section 101.2, an offence is said to be committed by a person if he had been engaged in receiving or providing training and such training is in relation to engagement or preparation or providing assistance with respect to a terrorist activity. The Section also applies if a person is found in possession of anything in relation to facilitating a terrorist activity. The legislature further provides that the individual must have knowledge that he is being engaged in a terrorist activity or had been reckless in ignoring the potential damage of his actions. In the present scenario it can been seen that Brian had no intention to engage in a terrorist activity and he further had no idea that Mathew and the three person along with him had intentions of causing a terrorist activity. It has to be noted in this case that Brian is a professional building Demolisher. It has to be assumed that he would have the knowledge that how dangerous a demolition process can be to the public. it also has to be assumed in this case that he should know the consequences of such techniques falling in wrong hand. According to the principles of statutory interpretation it is not the job of the court to doubt the ability of the parliament and to only provide proper meaning to the provisions in order to bring out the intention of the parliament[7]. The court can only divert from the literal meaning of the provisions if it is causing ambiguity or if it is not able to solve the defect it was introduced to address[8]. According to the section 101.2 it can be clearly indentified that Brian had been reckless in providing information and advice to Mathew about the demolition process without taking reasonable precautions to know that whether the building belong to Mathew or not. As he is a professional demolished he should have been aware of the risk of his actions. He should have taken proper precaution before providing such critical information to an unknown person. Here the question before the court is not to determine whether the result is fair or not but to give proper meaning to the word reckless This can be made simple through this example. A gun manufacturer cannot just sell a gun to anyone without verifying the fact that for what reason the gun is sought to be bought. If he does so he would be libel to the contribution in crime committed by the buyer[9]. According to Section 101.4 a person can be held liable for a terrorist act if he is found in possession of which is in connection to engagement, assistance or preparation of a terrorist activity and has knowledge about such activity or had not taken reasonable precautions towards avoiding the potential dangers of such activity. According to Sub section 5 of the act a person would not be responsible if he had no intention to cause a terrorist activity in relation to the possession of such thing. However it can be determined in this case that Brian being a professional must have verified the facts in relation to the building when he had the plan and thus he has been reckless according to part 3 (c) of Section 101.4. Thus he would be liable to be prosecuted under this Section and serve imprisonment. Reference Walker, Christopher J. "Inside agency statutory interpretation." (2014). Nourse, Victoria. "Elementary Statutory Interpretation: Rethinking Legislative Intent and History." (2014). Shobe, Jarrod. "Intertemporal Statutory Interpretation and the Evolution of Legislative Drafting."Colum. L. Rev.114 (2014): 807. Staszewski, Glen. "The Dumbing Down of Statutory Interpretation." (2015). Sartor, Giovanni, et al. "Argumentation Schemes for Statutory Interpretation: A Logical Analysis."JURIX. 2014. Anderson, Jill C. "Misleading like a Lawyer: Cognitive Bias in Statutory Interpretation."Harv. L. Rev.127 (2013): 1521. Kavanaugh, Brett M. "Fixing Statutory Interpretation." (2015): 2118. Solan, Lawrence M. "Precedent in Statutory Interpretation." (2016). Ekins, Richard. "Interpretive Choice in Statutory Interpretation."Am. J. Juris.59 (2014): 1. Seidenfeld, Mark. "A process failure theory of statutory interpretation." (2013). Eskridge Jr, William N. "Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal texts." (2013): 531-592.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Pottery and its Role in the Lives of People

Pottery and its Role in the Lives of People Introduction Culture is regarded as the complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society. Among others, culture encompasses beliefs, customs, and ways of life (Andersen Taylor, 2010).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pottery and its Role in the Lives of People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Culture includes ways of thinking as well as patterns of behavior. Observing culture involves studying what people think, how they interact, and the objects they use. In any society, culture defines what is perceived as beautiful and ugly, right and wrong, or good and bad. Culture helps to hold society together, giving people a sense of belonging, instructing them on how to behave, and telling them what to think in particular situations. Culture is both material and non material. Material culture consists of the objects created in a given society such as its buildings, art , tools, print, broadcast media, and other tangible objects. In the popular mind, material artifacts constitute culture because they can be collected in museums or archives and analyzed for what they represent. These objects are significant because of the meaning they are given. A temple for example, is not merely a building, nor is it only a place of worship. Its form and presentation signify the religious meaning system of the faithful. History of Pottery and its Role in People’s Lives Ordinarily, pottery is a considered to be an occupation that has no limits (Hopper, 2000). The beauty about pots is that their quality surpasses age and cultural borders. Although it has elements of both, pottery is neither painting nor sculpture. In general, pottery has concerns that are quite different from most other forms of expression. First, it is the process of transforming from flexible mad to hard ceramic. Second, it has associations with the rigors of daily life and the rituals of r eligious life. Third, it has multiple uses. Fourth is the finite variety of form that may be created. Fifth is its range of technical variation, giving a possibility of expression that is at least equal to all the variants of paintings and graphics, from water color to oils, and from etching to photo-lithography. Lastly is the degree of skill that is needed to bring all these concerns to the focal point of a finely made piece of work.Advertising Looking for research paper on cultural studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More History of Pottery As argued by Hopper (2000), the history of pottery goes back at least 8,000 years, to the Neolithic times, when the nomadic hunter settled to the life of crop farming and animal husbandry. Nobody is exactly sure where and when pottery making first developed. What is most likely is that it developed spontaneously in different places during roughly the same period of time. Ceramic history could be much older than what is currently accepted. Recent findings in Australia claim archeological remains containing rudimentary ceramics dating back 30,000 years. The area usually credited with being the cradle of civilization, that of the Mesopotamian basin in the Middle East is also credited with having the first pottery making cultures. Japan possibly has a ceramic history at least as long as any in the Middle East. One recurring fact is that, in what are often labeled as primitive cultures, the quality of clay work and its decoration had become exceptionally well made and sophisticated at such an early period in man’s cultural history. Regardless of where the actual first developments took place, the rudimentary forms from early pottery making cultures also have an astonishing similarity. Archeologists generally agree that, like most of mankind’s major discoveries, the earliest pottery probably developed by accident. There are two basic theories of de velopment. It may have come from observations of the way the earth became baked around fire pits, with the subsequent experimentation of making and firing pinched clay pots. On the other hand, it may have come from the accidental burning of clay lined baskets. Baskets were the original storage containers. They were made from grasses, reeds, roots, or soft malleable tree branches, primarily for carrying and storing grains and seeds, the major elements of the diet at that time. Baskets are anything but impervious to the loss of small seeds, which easily find their way through the basket weave. After a while, inner coatings of clay were probably smeared into the baskets to prevent loss. Some of these mud lined baskets were probably accidentally burnt, leaving a fired clay lining. Pottery could have even developed from the process of wrapping foods in a skin of clay and placing them in the embers of a fire or on heated rocks to cook. This method was common among the Indians of North Ame rica, and may also have been the precursor of the common cooking pot.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pottery and its Role in the Lives of People specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From these simple beginnings, has developed an art form that has served mankind for thousands of years, for his daily needs from birth to the grave, and beyond. Throughout man’s pottery making history, he has developed a huge repertoire of shapes and surfaces to fill his many needs. Looking at pottery in museums or as illustrations in books, one can not help but be amazed by the huge and subtle diversity of forms that man has molded clay into, for a wide variety of uses. Beyond the natural instincts of enjoying the purely manipulative quality of the material, and the function which is required of the formed objects, ceramic form has been influenced and altered by many factors and forces. Pottery developed as a response to th e needs of mankind. They became containers and dispensers. The forms they took developed for a number of reasons including the use required, religious associations, as a substitute emulating other more precious materials, geographical and climatic considerations, and the many variations in cultural customs. Once the basic needs became evident, forms were developed and made to serve them. Today, the variety of ceramic vessel forms that have been created is almost infinite. Pottery and Religious Associations Religious associations also had a profound effect on form development. Pots were made for fertility rites, deflowering of young girls, ritual libation vessels for the pouring of wines or oils, usually over sanctified ground, through to flower vases for temples and shrines of many oriental countries. They also include pots made for funeral rites and ceremonies dating far back into the earliest of cultures. In ancient Egypt, rulers and other people of power were embalmed and mummifi ed after death. Their internal organs were removed during the embalming process and were later interred with the mummy. Clay form has been greatly influenced by objects made from materials other than clay. Objects in use by different strata of any society might simultaneously have included objects made in gold, silver, bronze, copper, stone, glass, wood, bone, leather, roots, reeds and grasses, or clay. Not all these material were used by all cultures, but in each culture there was a hierarchy of materials that were used, mainly as a symbol of status. Clay was usually at the lower end of the status scale and often used to simulate objects made in a material of a higher value.Advertising Looking for research paper on cultural studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chinese porcelain was perhaps the lonely early ceramic development which was afforded the recognition of being a material of substantial value. In some cultures, notably India, pottery was the disposable material, like today’s paper. In some parts of India, everyday pottery was thrown away after use, either as a measure of hygiene, or by religious doctrine, or both. In many cultures, simple pottery forms were often endowed with spiritual or symbolic significance which has become lost with the passing of time. Vessels generally are the universal feminine symbol, the womb of the Great Mother, shelter, protection, nourishment, and fertility. Lidded forms, covered jars, boxes, urns, or bottles represent the feminine principle of containing, enclosure, or the womb. The chalice, cup, or goblet represents the source of inexhaustible sustenance or abundance, the heart and salvation, plenty, immortality, and receptivity. The ewer is a symbol of purity, and of washing the hands in inno cence. Gourd shaped vessels represent mystery and longevity. Pottery in Regard to Geographic and Climatic Considerations Geographic and climatic considerations are responsible for many form variations. First, the availability of clay and the types of available clay determine to some extent the objects that can be made in any given area. For instance, there may be only muddy clay or buff clay with a large amount of sand in it, as one finds in the Middle East and Africa (Coakes, 1998). The pottery there is of a very direct nature, with little opportunity for excessive manipulation. In other areas, where there may be an abundance of highly plastic clay, pots of a much more fluid nature may develop. Plastic clays will usually tolerate a great deal more manipulation, and therefore more complex forms are likely to emerge. Different pots are made at high altitudes than those made at sea level, not only because of the clay content but also because of the firing variations at higher altitude s. Climatic conditions have also played an important role. In hot countries, water is a precious commodity. Pots made for storing water are usually shaped to conserve water from excessive evaporation and are therefore usually made with comparatively narrow necks. Water is either tipped out or lifted out with a small ladle or dipping pot attached to a string. A vessel may even be a totally enclosed form with just a minute spout and small filling hole. The forms themselves may be quite extended and swollen to expose a maximum of its surface to condensation on the outside of the pot, in order to keep the water cool inside. There are usually a considerable number of insects in hot countries which are kept out of the containers by various cunning devices such as enclosed forms, objects that fill from the base, strainers, and many anti insect lid and spout variations. In cold or temperate climates, forms of cups and bowls are often more closed than open so that hot foods don’t cool too quickly, and the pots can also be a source of heating for the hands. Other climates will undoubtedly have their special effects. Pottery and Mankind’s Cultural Customs Mankind’s varied cultural customs and living habits have yet other influences on the development of form in pottery (Collins, 2005). For example, the way that potter is used, and in what sort of environment, has a very strong effect on the way that the bases of ceramic objects are made. In cultures that use tables, the base of the object needs to be flat or nearly flat. In other cultures that may have little use for tables, pots may be hanged from branches, walls, hooks, or ceiling supports. Pots used in this way often have pointed bases. In yet other cultures, the objects may be placed directly on earth or sand floors. In this case, we often find pots with rounded bases that can be made to tip or roll easily when in use. These forms would often be set on a braided fiber ring or even a ceramic ring, to facilitate tipping. In a further development of form, pointed or round-based pots were half buried for the storage of liquid that needed to be kept cool. It is much easier to bury or half bury a pot with a rounded base than one with a flat base. In some places where the contour of the ground was uneven, tripod or multiple feet were developed to keep the piece stable. Pottery and Carrying Carrying methods also have a strong bearing on form. In many cultures, particularly in Africa, objects are made with round bases to fit onto the head, separated and kept secure by a ring of fibrous material (Orton et al., 1993). In others, particularly in the mountainous parts of South America, the pots were carried on the upper part of the back, or slung behind the neck by a rope or cloth sling placed through the pots low level handles and around the person’s fore head. The handles that were the support loops for the slings were carefully contoured so that they had no sharp edges that mi ght cut the fabric. Their placement was critical to good support and mobility. Pottery in Food Preparation and Serving The ways and means of preparing and serving food and drink have also had their effect on form development of pots (Rhodes, 2004). In early primitive societies, food was mostly consumed in its raw or uncooked state. The diet of early civilizations consisted of little more than various forms of grain with the occasional portion of meat or fish, and beer made from fermented grain to wash the food down and aid digestion. The earliest forms of food preparation were either by direct cooking of meat or fish by piercing bits of flesh on sticks and holding them in front of a fire, or by steaming. This was done by heating rocks in a depression in the ground, or by placing hot rocks in a basket. In both cases, the rocks were covered with a thin layer of damp leaves or seaweed and the food placed on top. This was then covered with further layers of leaves, and sometimes earth o r sand to contain the heat and steam. Both of these simple methods of cooking were and are still common in many areas. Other timeless methods are cooking on top of embers, as well as on both charcoal and peat. As cooked foods became more widespread, different ways of cooking also developed. Pottery was developed to serve these needs, although in some cultures, notably India and Islam, iron, copper, and brass cooking pots were preferred. Of all the pottery that we can see in the museums of the world, cooking pots are perhaps the least in evidence, most likely because of their fragility from continual use, but also because they may not have been held in high enough esteem to be placed in tombs to accompany the deceased in their after life. Most of the pots that one finds in museums were made to be used rather than just to be looked at. Often, they had a special significance and were mainly used for less damaging actions of daily life. With a gradually changing role from utility to con templation at certain periods of history, the pots of some cultures attained a glorified role and were made expressly to be looked at. This happened particularly in England, Europe, and Czarist Russia from the mid eighteenth to the mid nineteenth centuries, where a large volume of interior ceramic accessories had little or no function other than a decorative one. Among these, one would find mantelpiece garniture sets, obelisks, and centerpieces, often based on structures and forms from the classical world of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Pottery and Gaming According to Skibo (1992), even games have had their effect on shaping some pottery forms. In classical Greece, a game called Kottabos was played using wine cup or kylix. The kylix is a stemmed up cup with elegant handles. In the game, a finger was crooked through the handle and then, with a flick of the wrist, the dregs of remaining wine were flipped at a target across the room. If the aim was accurate, the thrower dislodged a flat me tal disc from the top of a metal stand, which then fell to the floor with a resounding crash. Both the shape of the cup and the handle had some effect on the efficiency of the game, and the resultant kylix form was one of great elegance. Variations on the kylix form have been abundant since the neoclassic period of the nineteenth century. Conclusion From the discussion presented in this paper is it clear that pottery is an amalgam of many things. In the late twentieth century, we may not be aware of many of the attributes, considerations, and hidden meanings that are built into pots of old, or of their importance to the cultures that made them. More often than not, we are only aware of the form or surface itself, and of one culture’s forms in relation to those of another. Looking at the application of pottery in the areas of eating, drinking, storage, carrying, cooking and food preparation, serving, lighting, washing and perfuming, funeral, planting, as well as decoration and contemplation, it is obvious that pottery has played a big role in revolutionizing mankind’s way of life. The items we see and use today owe their origins to earlier practices of pottery. The present collection of items in house hold and elsewhere are certainly a result of the olden art of pottery. References Andersen, M. L. Taylor, H. F. (2010). Sociology: The Essentials, Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Coakes, M. (1998). Creative Pottery: A Step-By-Step Guide and Showcase. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers. Collins, N. P. (2005). Alamo Pottery: The Complete Collectors Guide: The History of Alamo Pottery and Its Offspring, Gilmer Pottery. AuthorHouse: Bloomington, Indiana. Hopper, R. (2000). Functional Pottery: Form and Aesthetic in Pots of Purpose. Iola, Wisconsin Krause Publications Craft. Orton, C., Tyers, P. Vince, A. (1993). Pottery in Archaeology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Rhodes, D. (2004). Pottery Form. Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Public ations. Skibo, J. M. (1992). Pottery Function: A Use-Alteration Perspective. New York, NY: Springer.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Assessment of Creativity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Assessment of Creativity - Essay Example This kind of research is done in controlled conditions, where there are some certain kinds of instructions given are the same (Kaufman & et al. 2004). There are many kinds of tasks given to test creativity. These include mathematical problems, puzzles, poem writing and story writing. The disadvantage with this kind of test is that it cannot be done to already existing innovations. It only exists in a controlled environment. It is very disadvantageous as creativity cannot be limited to a vacuum (Kaufman & et al. 2004). The Mathematical Creativity Problem Solving Ability Test is a test developed to identify those who are mathematically gifted (Kim & Ahn 2003). The ability to provide new solutions using already existing knowledge of concepts involves thinking methods and principles. There are four stages involved in creative math problem solving. This includes identification of the problem, the formation of a plan to solve the problem, execution of the plan and analysis of how well the problem was solved (Kim & Ahn 2003). The test consists of two parts. The first part is open-ended, where there are various accepted answers. The second part is closed and there is only one correct answer. This type of test beneficial does not completely limit the thinking of an individual. A mathematics creativity test should provide both convergent and divergent thinking. It should not completely limit one to a wrong or right answer. There should also be factors that promote the formation of creativity. An environment where all the factors favorable for habit formation are favorable, various other tasks should be integrated into the test not only the ability to provide the answer. Things such as an understanding of the problem and articulation of the solution should be